Krkonoše

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Giant Mountains (German Riesengebirge, Polish Karkonosze) ndiyo inonzi geomorphological uye yakareba makomo muCzech na Highlands. Inogara kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumabvazuva kweBohemia (chikamu chekumadokero chiri munzvimbo yeLiberec, chikamu chekumabvazuva kweKrálovéhradecký) uye kumaodzanyemba kwePoland chikamu cheSilesia. Gomo rakakwirira kupfuura mamwe ose muGiant Mountains is Sněžka (1603 m). Maererano nenhepfenyuro, Krkonoše Mountains inodzivirira mweya weKakonos. Icho chiri chimwe chezvinyanya kuzivikanwa munzvimbo dzezvikomo muCzech Republic.

gomo Wider wose kusanganisira Giant akanga atova aripo kare inorondedzerwa se Sudetenland, izvo zvichida ndiro zita Celtic mavambo (anowanzodanwa rakashandurwa sezvo gomo musii) kana Balkan kwakabva (rakashandurwa sezvo Goat Mountain). Ptolemy (pamusoro 85-165) rakashandiswa yanhasi Sudetenland mazita Sudetayle (Mountains Mboroma) uye Askiburgion (kunyanya Mountains, pedo neguta Askiburgium kuparadzirwa, zvichida kuti Mountains Lusatian, kusanganisira Mountains Giant). Dio Cassius mu3. yezana remakore rakashandurwa zita rokuti Vandalski Mountains for Askiburgion. Mushure Ptolemaic mepu vakasvika Czech Republic Bohuslav Balbin uye Pavel dombo kubva kumusoro kushandisa kuwedzerwa mazuva okubhadhara zita Sudetenland akazara bhendi (17. Century).

Makomo eKrkonose anozivikanwa seHohemian Forest muRussia Tsamba dze1095, uye Snowy Pulkava mu1380 inonzi Snowy Mountains.

Mountains Giant zita pakutanga raireva zvose zvakakwirira Kolo uye bhaira nhasi kana Kokrháč. Wokupemberera Mountains Giant (kuchisazitasingwi zvechikadzi ", ne" makomo makuru) kuti muhomba rinowanika 1492 mu nhoroondo weboka Štěpanice munda musi Wallenstein uye Jilemnický chikamu 1499 zvino nemabasa Vladislav II., The wedangwe kupona map zita iroro zvakashanda Nicholas Klaudyan mu1518. Wenceslaus Hajek mu rondedzero yake 1541 akashandisa zita Czech uye Silesian Giant Mountains.

The uchapupu kuwedzera zita kugomo wose wokutanga kubva 1517 kana musoro ndiye Krkonošské makomo, makomo Giant akanyorwa mukwanisi dhiyabhorosi nhamba. Zita rakafuridzirwa reGiant Mountains rakatanga kunyorwa mu1601. The zita kakawanda kuonekwa rinobva vatana necheSalvic nechigadziko "mutsipa" kana "CRACKER", zvichireva zvipfupi nemipaini kana gomo Pin, Josef Jungmann rwakabatana zita weGermany kana Celtic rudzi Corconti kana Korkontoi yakataurwa Ptolemy, pamwe nokufungidzira kuti kutaurwa makomo Asciburgius akanga fanana nhasi Giant Mountains (Korkontoi asina kurarama chero pedyo kwakabva Vistula, kana pane Beskydy). Tsvakurudzo vanodudzira kwakabva zita Proto hwaro, zvichireva "matombo materu, matombo munda" uye anoratidza kubatana pamwe zita Ukrainian Gorgany makomo Eastern Carpathians.

German nerokuti (Czech uye Silesian divi makomo yakanga kusvikira 1945 rinogarwa ruzhinji vokuGermany) pamwe zvinoreva Mountains Giant (Riesengebirge, Giant Mountains iri Chirungu) rinobva zita Risenberg, iro Agricola (Georgius?) In 1546 akacherekedza muzhizha. Nhamba yakazara yeRiesengebirge yenhamba yose yemakomo yakatanga kunyorwa mu1571.

Nheyo yekugadzirwa kwegungwa inosanganisira pe-peak crystalline slate uye prehistoric metamorphic rocks (clamp). Muchikamu chekumabvazuva kwezvikomo zvakasiyana-siyana, mazamu ematombo haawanzoitiki. Iko krisstallinic yekare inopinda kune dzimwe nzvimbo uye Krkonoše-Jizerský pluton (granite). Mavhiriji emiti ye quaters ainge achiri mairi glaciers anotarisa kumaruwa. Paiva nemhando mbiri dzemagetsi. Yokutanga yaiva mumupata-type glaciers uye wechipiri yainzi Scandinavian. Nzvimbo yakakura yepamusoro (gomo raDhiyabhorosi, nezvimwewo) rinobhadhara mavhiriji ayo kubva pakutanga. Kune pfungwa yakanaka, tinogona kutarisa ma icebergs muScandinavia anoratidza kuti uri sei Mountains Giant inogona kutarisa. Muenzaniso wakanakisa wekushanda kwemhepo ndeyekuti, somuenzaniso, Mine yeElbe kana Giant Mine, iyo iri mumupata wakaumbwa nemafuta emvura (troges). Mamwe mavara emagetsi e glacial kars (v Mountains Giant karya inozivikanwa se "gomba"). Zvakakodzera kutaura nezveKotelní jámy neGood pit muPoland. Kary chimwe chezvinhu zvinokosha zvikuru zvatinogona kuita Mountains Giant nokuti ndiyo inonyanya kuwanikwa yeGiant Mountains. Cryogenic basa v Mountains Giant zvakakosha kutaura, somuenzaniso, yakazara gungwa gungwa (makomo akakwirira) kana mazhenje emagetsi akachengetwa.

Panharaunda yeGiant Mountains kune relic uye mhando dzese dzezvirimwa nemhuka. V Mountains Giant ndiyo nzvimbo dzakakwirira pane iri kumusoro kwemasango muCzech Republic. Pamusoro pe 1200-1300 m bhanhire remasango rinopera apa. Kumusoro ndiko nzvimbo yekudengenyeka kwenyika, murwi, dombo uye gungwa rinoputika. Ichi chaicho chinonzi biotope chinonzi arc-alpine tundra. Mune dzimwe nzvimbo tinotowana peat bogs. Muchero wepurovhesi yepakutanga wakanga uchinge waparadzwa nehuwandu hwemasvikiro. Munzvimbo dziri pasi, beech uye spruce monocultures kukura. Iyo Malacofauna yeGiant Mountains ine 90 mitundu ye molluscs.

On mundima Mountains Giant riri Giant Mountains National Park (KRNAP) nzvimbo 36 400 Ha, uyo akanzi gore 1963, uye Karkonoski Park Narodowy (KPN), rakaumbwa muna 1959. Nzvimbo yekuchengetedzwa kwepaki yepasiti ine uwandu hwe18 400 ha kuCzech. Mountains vari zvakare kubva 1992 Bilateral Biosphere Reserve aakadanidzira United Nations Educational, Scientific, uye Cultural Organization (nzvimbo Czech chikamu 54 800 ha). IKRNAP yakakamurwa kuva I., II. uye III. nzvimbo dzekuchengetedza, uko nzvimbo yekutanga ndiyo yakakosha uye hurumende yakadzivirira kudzivirirwa inowira pairi. Izvi zvinoreva, somuenzaniso, inotarisa pane ini ne1. nzvimbo yakarambidzwa kutamira kunze kwevatambi vanocherechedza uye nzira dzechikepe. On mundima Mountains Giant anonziwo Bird Area uye Rinokosha Bird Area, anofukidza yose biosphere kuchengeterwa, ukuwo. nyika yepaki kusanganisira nzvimbo yekudzivirira.

Iyo Giant Mountains inobva kune mamiriro ekunze maonero emakomo akareba kwazvo muCzech Republic. Misoro iri pamusoro pemuganhu we 1400 inogona kufananidzwa neGreen Coast. Kupisa kunowanzosiyana zvikuru nepamusoro. Somuenzaniso, inharaunda yekupisa muTrutnov iyi 6,8 digiri Celsius, iyo iri muSněžka, iyo inotonhora kupfuura ye Krkonoše, inopisa yegore inopisa inonzi 0,2 degrees Celsius. Panguva imwecheteyo, ndiyo nzvimbo inotonhora zvikuru muCzech Republic. Kuwandisa kwemvura muGiant Mountains kunoenderana nekukwirira uye kutsetsereka. Ichokwadi ndechokuti zvivako muWestern Giant Makomo zvine mvura yakawanda kupfuura zviteshi zvekumabvazuva kweGiant Mountains mukati megore nokuti Western yenyika inoyerera inowedzera muCzech Republic. Mvura zhinji inowira mumwedzi yezhizha panguva yemadutu uye mvura isinganyanyi kuitika muna March, asi nekuda kwehuwandu hwechando haisi pachena. Kunyange zvazvo Makomo eGiant ndiwo makomo akakwirira muCzech Republic, haisi kuita seyakanyanya kukosha nokuti Krkonoše Mountains iri munzvimbo yemvura ye Jizera Mountains. Pamakwikwi aya, kuwanda kwemvura kunenge kune 1300 mm / gore, asi mumupata unogona kusvika ku 1500 mm / gore. Chimwe chikamu chemvura yakanyatsoti chando, icho chikamu chinokosha cheGiant Mountains. Pakati pezuva, zuva rekutanga rechando muKronoše Mountains haringatauri nokuti rinogona kuchando pamapata anenge gore rose. Chifukidziro chechando chakamira pazvikwata zvichienderana kubva pakati peNovember kusvika May. Nzvimbo huru yechando yakaunganidzwa iri pamakomo sloping (Mepu yenyika umo chando chinosvika kusvika ku 15 mamita!). Kazhinji mumakomo maGiant mhepo ine simba inovhuvhuta (iyo yakanyanya kukurumidza mhepo inotaridzwa paSněžka 216 km / h).

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